Maneouvring characteristics; advance, transfer, reach, tactical diameter

Pivot point: At any instant while a ship is turning a line drawn from the centre of curvature of the path perpendicular to the ship's for and aft line meets the latter at this point.A ship turns about this point located at about 1/3rd of ships length from foreward when going ahead, correspondingly from stern when going astern.

Advance: When a ship is turning the distance traveled by centre of gravity along the original course.

Transfer: Distance traveled by  COG measured from the original track to the point where the vessel has altered her course by 90 degrees.

Tactical diameter: It is the transfer for 180 degrees.

Stopping distance: It is the minimum distance that a vessel requires to come to rest over the ground.

Head reach: Distance along the direction of the course that it covers from the moment the full astern command is given until ahead speed changes sign.

Track reach: Distance along the vessel's track that it covers from the moment astetn command is given until ahead speed changes sign.

Turning circle: The roughly circular path followed by a vessel when it alters course under helm through 360 degrees.

Drift angle: Angle between ship's fore and aft line and the tangent to the turning circle.

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